New views on the hypothesis of respiratory cancer risk from soluble nickel exposure; and reconsideration of this risk's historical sources in nickel refineries. The linear logistic model refers to the logit transform of the probability of disease from exposure Pexpressed as a linear function of regression variables x whose values correspond to the levels of exposure to the risk factors total nickel exposure and smoking status. Inhal Toxicol6: — Their employment records would be less likely to provide reliable documentation of their department and job histories, largely because they would have entered a labour pool where departmental foremen assigned jobs on the basis of daily requirements. Table 2 Characteristics of KNR epidemiological studies by treatment of worker exposure Full size table. This represented a loss of 5.
land and Wales in there were 4, deaths attributed to cancer of the uterus. arsenic, nickel, asbestos, radioactivity), because these affect only small. British Journal ofIndustrial Medicine,35, age at diagnosis of lung cancer in the nickel workers corresponds closely with that of male .
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The BMJ Vols. to ; to Vols. to ; British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Ed.) Vols. to ; Vols. 1 to 2;
We have adopted a weight of scientific evidence standard [ 63 ] to examine the support for the soluble nickel cancer hypothesis; and have presented new findings and new analyses of existing findings of the human health and toxicological evidence for this compound that refute or seriously weaken the proposition.
Kristiansand, Norway. Draper MH: A re-assessment of respiratory cancers at the Clydach nickel refinery: new evidence of causation. Part of this rationale hinges on a key environmental study by Andersen et al. Nickel dust preferentially exiting the roaster provides one highly improbable explanation.
Environmental effects and skin disease British Medical Bulletin Oxford Academic
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|Longmans Canada Ltd. The principal author replied by dismissing our concerns [ 45 ].
We have also identified unsupported changes to historical worker exposures in the most recent KNR epidemiological studies that cast serious doubt on the validity and reliability of inferences drawn from them. Although arsenic is present in the mined nickel ores in the Sudbury basin, no systematic measurements were ever reported. Plan view of the three floors of KNR's Purification section.
Except where noted, risk estimates did not account for the prior risk of lung cancer from smoking or off site risky work exposures to asbestos, pesticides, etc.
; 2: 92–8.
Video: British medical journal 1945 nickel 1943, 1944, 1946 Jefferson Nickels-Each Have Different Metal Content
5. Nickel, Lead and Zinc,” Environmental Science and Technologyof Lead at Low Dose,” The British Journal of Industrial Medicine –Industry,” Journal of the American Medical Association Thirty-First Annual Report of the State Board of Health of Massachusetts.
''Survey for Cadmium, Cobalt, Chromium, Copper, Nickel, Lead, Zinc, Calcium, and British Medical Journal Knowledge and Household Behavior, –
Gaylor DW: Are tumor incidence rates from chronic bioassays telling us what we need to know about carcinogens?
Dose selection plays a key issue in the design and interpretation of the animal bioassay. But it was associated with lung neoplasms found only in rats exposed to nickel subsulphide and nickel oxide for which exposure female mice also showed carcinomas but not to nickel sulphate and metallic nickel. Nieboer reported a half-life for water soluble Ni II salts in the blood stream of 24 hours or less [ 58 ].
In both studies, the reader can note the mostly non-significantly elevated risk in workers with 1—14 years since first exposure and upturn in risk for the most recent subcohort yet againsuggesting that these men were entering the workforce with prior lung cancer risk. In a recent e-letter, Andrews and Heller published an analysis of the Grimsrud et al.
Analysis of 12 elements in the samples revealed significant differences only for arsenic and iron.
British medical journal 1945 nickel
|The International Convention on Harmonization ICH requires a battery of 3 genotoxicity tests to be conducted on a new drug before it is given to humans in a clinical trial [ 59 ].
Beforeall nickel sulphide destined for electrolytic refining at CC was sintered to oxide, reduction smelted, and cast into metal anodes. Cementation was carried out in 20 mechanically agitated tanks. Toxicology and Industrial Health7 4 — Fundam Appl Toxicol— Scale drawing of KNR showing building layouts and process flows by time period.